baxoje, the ioway nation, resources on the ioway or iowa indian tribe

Ioway Cultural Institute : The Ioway Virtual Library

Sacred Bundles of the Ioway Indians,
By Lance Michael Foster
( 1994-2001, All Rights Reserved)


Sacred Bundles of the Ioway Indians: Table of Contents

DANG IT, READ THIS! Once again (since so many Internet readers refuse to read fine print), this Table of Contents is from the original printed version of my thesis. The Table of Contents with page numbers is given here to help scholars compare this online version with the original thesis. This online version follows the same format but the page numbers are not used. The content is the same or even expanded here, and is free. Feel free to print it all out for you personal use. Print...Print like the wind!

If you really need the page numbers, original format, etc. (as some scholars do), the cost will be $75 (which includes a binder and postage). Email me at ioway@earthlink.net for details. In other words, the content of this site is FREE and a gift in the name of the Old People... but if you are going to make me wait in line at Kinko's and stand in front of a copy machine for an hour, and then stand in line at the post office, you gotta pay! hehe (I hate making photocopies.. the flashing lights really annoy me!)

(Ignore the page numbers, as those apply to the original printed version)

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LIST OF FIGURES and LIST OF TABLES [see this page, below]

ORTHOGRAPHY (How Ioway words are spelled and pronounced) and Preface


CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
The study of sacred bundles 1
Statement of Purpose 3
Objective of the study 3
Plan of Presentation 5
Chapter topics 5


CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE AND MUSEUM SEARCH
Literature Search 7
Sacred bundles 7
The Ioway in the literature 8
Museum Search 9
Museums with Ioway collections 9


CHAPTER 3. THE IOWAY: HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT
Ioway Origins 12
The Oneota 12
Sacred stories 16
Ioway ethnohistory 23
Ioway culture 29
Religious concepts 29
Social organization 32
Material culture 35

CHAPTER 4. IOWAY SACRED BUNDLES IN CONTEXT
The Sacred Bundles of the Ioway 39
The Ioway and sacred bundles 39
Typology and etics, taxonomy and emics 39
Hamilton and the Ioway bundles 40
Pipes in Historical Context 43
Archaeological antecedents 43
Early accounts of Ioway pipes 44 [Chapter 4: pages 39-51, click here]
Skinner and Ioway sacred pipes 52
Pipe Dance, or Calumet Dance 59
War and War Bundles in Historical Context 61
Early accounts of war and the war bundles 61 [Chapter 4: pages 52-63, click here]
Hamilton's descriptions of Ioway warfare 64
Irvin and the Waw-Ru-Haw-a 68 [Chapter 4: pages 64-73, click here]
Skinner: War and the warbundles 74
The "Ghost Bundle" or oath bundle 80
Scalps and scalplocks 81
Red Medicine Dance 82
Placement of bundles 83 [Chapter 4: pages 74-84, click here]
Doctoring in Historical Context 85
Early accounts of doctoring 85
Illness etiology 90
Treatment of illness 91
The Buffalo Doctors 92 [Chapter 4: pages 85-94, click here]
Buffalo Doctor society origins 95
Admittance to the Buffalo Doctor society 98
The Buffalo Dance 99
Buffalo healing 101 [Chapter 4: pages 95-102, click here]
Otter Dance, or Medicine Dance 103
Hanwahe Washi: The interaction of the Buffalo Doctors and the
Otter Doctors 110
Witchcraft 112 [Chapter 4: pages 103-113, click here]
Lineage and power transference in Ioway societies 114
Tattooing Bundles in Historical Context 116
Early accounts of Ioway tattooing 116
The tattooing data of Skinner and Harrington 119 [Chapter 4: pages 114-125, click here]
Miscellaneous Medicines and Bundles 126
Love and hunting medicines 126
The Decline of the Bundle System 126
The expense of bundles 126
The role of peyotism 127
Requiem [Chapter 4: 126-129, click here]

CHAPTER 5. SACRED BUNDLES AT THE MILWAUKEE PUBLIC
MUSEUM 130

Alanson B. Skinner: A Biographical Sketch 130
Alanson Skinner (1885-1925) 130
Skinner's contributions to anthropology 130
Historiography and Resolving Contradictions in the Collection 132
Skinner's data and informants 132
Skinner's correspondence 133
Problems with the collection 133
Resolving the problems through historiography 134
Method of presentation of the collection 135
Collecting in 1922 (Part 1): Catalog and Description 136

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Preparations 136
Collecting in Oklahoma in May 139 [Chapter 5: pages 130-141, click here]
Cow Buffalo Clan pipe (30132-30135) [M1] 142
Pigeon Clan pipe (30136-30140) [M2] 147 [Chapter 5: pages 142-151, click here]
Sacred pipe (clan uncertain) (30141-30143) [M3] 152
Buffalo pipe of the Missouri tribe (30144-30147) 159
Medicine Dance bags 160
Buffalo Doctor woven bags (30156, 30157) 161 [Chapter 5: pages 152-161, click here]
Collecting in 1922 (Part 2): Catalog and Description 162
Return to Milwaukee 162
Oklahoma again 164
Wolf Clan pipe (30532-30533) [M4] 171 [Chapter 5: pages 162-173, click here]
Male Buffalo Clan pipe (30534-30537) [M5] 174
Black Bear Clan pipe (30538-30539) [M6] 178 [Chapter 5: pages 174-185, click here]
Black Bear clan chief's pipe (30540) 186
Medicine Dance bags (30541-30551) 186
Mescal bean necklace (30555) 192
Doctoring implements (30581-30584) 193
Wolf clan chief's pipe (30596) 194
Love and gambling medicine bundle (30610-30612) 194 [Chapter 5: pages 186-196, click here]
Tattooing bundle (Wolf clan) (30614-30627) [M7] 197
Buffalo doctor's bundle (30628-30630) [M8] 199
Buffalo doctor's bundle (30631-30636) [M9] 200
Unnamed bundle (Buffalo doctor's) (30637-30642) [M10] 201
Buffalo doctor's bundle (30643-30655) [M11] 202
Buffalo robes (30656-30657) 205
Grizzly bear doctor's bundle (30658-30660) 206
Fall 1992: Interlude 207
Return to Milwaukee 207 [Chapter 5: pages 197-208, click here]
Collecting in 1923: Catalog and Description 209
Trips to Oklahoma, Missouri, and Nebraska 209
Owl Clan pipe (31491) [M12] 212
Unidentified clan pipe (Thunder?) (31492) [M13] 214
Pipe Dance outfit (31493-31500) 216 [Chapter 5: pages 209-216, click here]
Thunder Clan war bundle (31501-31513) [M14] 217
War bundle (31514-31532) [M15] 223
War bundle (31533-31543) [M16] 228
War bundle (31544-31551) [M17] 229 [Chapter 5: pages 217-229, click here]
Tattooing bundle (Black Bear Clan) (31552-31564) [M18] 231
Buffalo doctor's bundle (31565-31575) [M19] 237
Buffalo doctor's bundle (31576-31582) [M20] 240 [Chapter 5: pages 230-239, click here]
Buffalo doctor's bundle (31583-31594) [M21] 242
Buffalo doctor's bundle (31738-31742) [M22] 245
Buffalo doctor's bundle (31743-31752) [M23] 246 [Chapter 5: pages 240-248, click here]
Epilogue 249
Correspondence and comments 249 [Chapter 5: pages 249-252, click here]


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CHAPTER 6. SACRED BUNDLES AT THE MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN 253
M.R. Harrington and the Field Notes 253
M.R. Harrington (1882-1971): A brief biography 253
The field notes 253
Ioway Sacred Bundles at the Museum of the American Indian 254
Arrangement of the data 254
Wanathunje's scalping bundle, or Big War Bundle [H1] 255
War bundles (otter club bundle and otter skin bundle) [H2] 261 [Chapter 6: pages 253-264, click here]
"Cow bundle" [H3] 265
Wathe bundle [H4] 266
Buffalo doctor bundle [H5] 270
Buffalo doctor bundle [H6] 271
Buffalo doctor bundle [H7] 271
Buffalo doctor bundle [H8] 271
Buffalo doctor bundles (2) [H9] 272 [Chapter 6: pages 265-272, click here]
Tattooing bundle [H10] 273
Red Medicine bundle [H11] 276
Love medicine bundle 281
Witch bundle 281
Symbolism and the Peyote Road 281 [Chapter 6: pages 273-282, click here]


CHAPTER 7. ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLISM IN IOWAY SACRED
BUNDLES 283

Elements in Ioway Bundles 283
Occurrence of elements in Ioway bundles 283
Interpretation of results 285
Thoughts on Symbolism 286
Power and metaphor 286
Animals, plants, and power 287
Sweetgrass and spirits 287
Clubs, thunder, and authority 288
Carolina paroquet 289
Woodpeckers and war 290
Non-native items in bundles, time frames, and final comments 290 [Chapter 7: pages 283-292, click here]


CHAPTER 8. TOWARD A TAXONOMY OF IOWAY SACRED BUNDLES 293
Taxonomies and Typologies: The Historical Data 293
Taxonomy or typology 293
A comparison of historical taxonomies 294
Hamilton's taxonomy (ca. 1848) 295
Dorsey's taxonomy (1894) 295
Skinner's first taxonomy (1915) 296
Skinner's second taxonomy (1925) 297
Skinner's bundle typology (1926) 298

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Harrington's typology (1910) 299
Comparison results 300
Constructing a Taxonomy 301
Method of construction 301 [Chapter 8: pages 293-301, click here]
The etic view: Bundle content assemblages 302
Results of assemblage examination 302 [Chapter 8: pages 302-311, click here]
Bundle types and their attributes 312
Emic testing: Linguistic evidence 313
lahnuwe waxonyitan 313
oyu 314
waluxawe 314
wach'e and wathe (wathu) waluxawe 315
che waluxawe 319 [Chapter 8: pages 312-320, click here]
wangegihi waluxawe (?) 321
manka shuje waluxawe 322
hinage manka 322
naxowe waluxawe 323
iyunke waluxawe 324
wiglexe 324
wanaxi oyu 324
ta waluxawe 325
Suggested linguistic taxonomy of bundles 325 [Chapter 8: pages 321-326, click here]


CHAPTER 9. CONCLUSIONS 327
Last Thoughts on Bundles 327
Bundles, the clans, and NAGPRA 327
Transformation processes in the museum 330
Suggested directions for future research 331
Archaeological implications of bundles 331
Material Culture, Language, and Ethnicity 333
The importance of clan in future studies 333
Symbolism, similarities, and diffusion 335
The study and Ioway of today 336
Final comments on Ioway language and worldview 337 [Chapter 9: pages 327-337, click here]


REFERENCES CITED 338

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 348 [For references cited and acknowledgements, click here]

APPENDIX: GLOSSARY OF IOWAY TERMS 350 [For the Glossary, click here]

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LIST OF FIGURES [NOTE! These have not yet been scanned and are not yet on the website]


Figure 3.1: Classic Oneota and related sites (After Glenn 1974: 24) 14

Figure 3.2: Ioway clan organization 33

Figure 4.1: No Heart (1837 painting by Charles Bird King) 48
(Horan 1972: 313)

Figure 4.2: Walking Rain (1837 painting by Charles Bird King) 49
(Horan 1972: 314)

Figure 4.3: Much Deer Meat (1837 painting by Charles Bird King) 50
(Horan 1972: 316)

Figure 4.4: No Heart (ca. 1830 painting by George Catlin) 53
(Catlin 1973 (II): Plate 129)

Figure 4.5: Man of Sense (ca. 1830 painting by George Catlin) 54
(Catlin 1973 (II): Plate 130)

Figure 4.6: Warbundle; (a) covered, (b) on post, (c) warbundle 70
(After Irvin 1871)

Figure 4.7: Grave post pictographs (numbers in original) 72
(After Irvin 1871)

Figure 4.8: Grizzly Bear Doctor; shown with grizzly paw armband 93
(MPM 30658), rawhide rattle (MPM 30659), and grizzly
head skin cap (MPM 30660)

Figure 4.9: (a) Bundle of sticks representing horses given away, and 118
(b) pokadache (or "krakra" mark) on girl
(After Green, in Jensen 1988: 180, fig. 8)

Figure 4.10: Tattoo designs on Ioway men and women 124
(After sketches by M.R. Harrington (n.d.))

Figure 5.1: Buffalo clan pipestems [M1]; 30135: (a) above, (b) below; 144
30133: (c) above, (d) below

Figure 5.2: Pigeon clan pipe [M2]; (a) 30137 and 30138: stem and bowl 149
(b) 30138: bowl

Figure 5.3: Unidentified clan pipe [M3]; (a) 30142 and 30143: stem and 154
bowl; (b) 30143: bowl

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Figure 5.4: Wolf clan pipe [M4]; (a) 30532a-b: stem and bowl; 172
(b) 30532b: bowl

Figure 5.5: Male Buffalo clan pipe [M5]; 30536a: stem, (a) above, 175
(b) below; (c) 30536b: bowl; (d) 30536a-b: stem and bowl

Figure 5.6: Black Bear clan pipe [M6]; (a) 30538a-b: stem and bowl; 179
(b) 30538b: bowl

Figure 5.7: Black Bear clan chief's pipestem (30540) 187

Figure 5.8: Wolf clan chief's pipe; (a) 30596a: stem; (b) 30596b: bowl; 195
(c) 30596a-b: stem and bowl

Figure 5.9: Owl clan pipestem [M12]; 31491: (a) below, (b) above 213

Figure 5.10: Unidentified (Thunder?) clan pipe [M13]; (a) 31492a-b: 215
stem and bowl; (b) 31492b: bowl

Figure 5.11: Warbundles; (a) Wanathunje's scalping bundle [H1] 218
(2/7814) [wach'e waluxawe]; (b) Thunder clan warbundle
[M14] (31501), [wathe waluxawe]

Figure 5.12: Items from tattooing bundles; (a) mat case (31552); 232
(b) tattooing needle (31553); (c) tattooing needle (30622a);
(d) charred willow stick (30618); (e) cane and willow stamps
(31559a-d); (f) woven bag (31556)

Figure 6.1: Otter celtiform warclub (2/3877) 262

Figure 8.1: Taxonomy of bundles 326


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LIST OF TABLES


Table 7.1: Occurrence of elements in Ioway bundles 284

Table 8.1: Diagnostic trait comparisons in bundles 303

Table 8.2: Warbundle comparison 316

Table 9.1: Bundles and the clan system 328

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Table of Contents
Orthography
Chapters
1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5 : 6 : 7 : 8 : 9
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