Treaties : Treaty of 1825
TREATY WITH THE SIOUX, ETC., 1825 (aka 1825 Treaty of Prairie du
Aug. 19, 1825. | 7 Stat., 272. | Proclamation. Feb. 6, 1826.
Firm and perpetual peace.
the respective countries.
of Sacs and Foxes.
to the arrangement.
Claim of the
Ottoes not to be affected by this treaty.
between the Sioux and Chippewas.
between the Chippewas and the Winnebagoes.
between the Winnebagoes and the Sioux, etc.
between the Menominees and the Sioux, etc.
the Ottawas, Chippewas, and Potawatomies.
acknowledge the supremacy of the United States.
A council to be
held in 1826.
of the Chippewas to be convened.
No tribe to hunt
within the acknowledged limits of any other without their
In case of
difficulty between the tribes.
When to take
Treaty with the Sioux and Chippewa, Sacs and Fox, Menominie, Ioway,
Sioux, Winnebago, and a portion of the Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawattomie,
THE United States of America have seen with much regret, that wars have for
many years been carried on between the Sioux and the Chippewas, and more
recently between the confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes, and the Sioux; and
also between the Ioways and Sioux; which, if not terminated, may extend to the
other tribes, and involve the Indians upon the Missouri, the Mississippi, and
the Lakes, in general hostilities. In order, therefore, to promote peace among
these tribes, and to establish boundaries among them and the other tribes who
live in their vicinity, and thereby to remove all causes of future difficulty,
the United States have invited the Chippewa, Sac, and Fox, Menominie, Ioway,
Sioux, Winnebago, and a portion of the Ottowa, Chippewa and Potawatomie Tribes
of Indians living upon the Illinois, to assemble together, and in a spirit of
mutual conciliation to accomplish these objects; and to aid therein, have
appointed William Clark and Lewis Cass, Commissioners on their part, who have
met the Chiefs, Warriors, and Representatives of the said tribes, and portion
of tribes, at Prairie des Chiens, in the Territory of Michigan, and after full
deliberation, the said tribes, and portions of tribes, have agreed with the
United States, and with one another, upon the following articles.
There shall be a firm and perpetual peace between the
Sioux and Chippewas; between the Sioux and the confederated tribes of Sacs and
Foxes; and between the Ioways and the Sioux.
It is agreed between the confederated Tribes of the Sacs and Foxes, and the
Sioux, that the Line between their respective
countries shall be as follows: Commencing at the mouth of the Upper Ioway
the west bank of the Mississippi, and ascending the said Ioway river, to
its left fork; thence up that fork to its source; thence crossing the fork of
Red Cedar River, in a direct line to the second or upper fork of the Desmoines
river; and thence in a direct line to the lower fork of the Calumet river; and
down that river to its juncture with the Missouri river. But the Yancton band
of the Sioux tribe, being principally interested in the establishment of the
line from the Forks of the Desmoines to the Missouri, and not being
sufficiently represented to render the definitive establishment of that line
proper, it is expressly declared that the line from the forks of the Desmoines
to the forks of the Calumet river, and down that river to the Missouri, is not
to be considered as settled until the assent of the Yancton band shall be
given thereto. And if the said band should refuse their assent, the
arrangement of that portion of the boundary line shall be void, and the rights
of the parties to the country bounded thereby, shall be the same as if no
provision had been made for the extension of the line west of the forks of the
Desmoines. And the Sacs and Foxes relinquish to
the tribes interested therein, all their claim to land on the east side of the
The Ioways accede to the arrangement between the
Sacs and Foxes, and the Sioux; but it is agreed between the Ioways and the
confederated tribes of the Sacs and Foxes, that the Ioways have a just claim
to a portion of the country between the boundary line described in the next
preceding article, and the Missouri and Mississippi; and that the said Ioways,
and Sacs and Foxes, shall peaceably occupy the same, until some satisfactory
arrangement can be made between them for a division of their respective claims
The Ottoes not being represented at this Council, and
the Commissioners for the United States being anxious that justice should be
done to all parties, and having reason to believe that the Ottoes have a just
claim to a portion of the country upon the Missouri, east and south of the
boundary line dividing the Sacs and Foxes and the Ioways, from the Sioux, it
is agreed between the parties interested therein, and the United States, that
the claim of the Ottoes shall not be affected by any thing herein contained;
but the same shall remain as valid as if this treaty had not been formed.
It is agreed between the Sioux and
the Chippewas, that the line dividing their respective countries shall
commence at the Chippewa River, half a day's march below the falls; and from
thence it shall run to Red Cedar River, immediately below the falls; from
thence to the St. Croix River, which it strikes at a place called the standing
cedar, about a day's paddle in a canoe, above the Lake at the mouth of that
river; thence passing between two lakes called by the Chippewas "Green Lakes,"
and by the Sioux "the lakes they bury the Eagles in," and from thence to the
standing cedar that "the Sioux Split;" thence to Rum River, crossing it at the
mouth of a small creek called choaking creek, a long day's march from the
Mississippi; thence to a point of woods that projects into the prairie, half a
day's march from the Mississippi; thence in a straight line to the mouth of
the first river which enters the Mississippi on its west side above the mouth
of Sac river; thence ascending the said river (above the mouth of Sac
to a small lake at its source; thence in a direct line to a lake at the
head of Prairie river, which is supposed to enter the Crow Wing river on its
South side; thence to Otter-tail lake Portage; thence to said Ottertail lake,
and down through the middle thereof, to its outlet; thence in a direct line,
so as to strike Buffalo river, half way from its source to its mouth, and down
the said river to Red River; thence descending Red river to the mouth of
Outard or Goose creek: The eastern boundary of the Sioux commences opposite
the mouth of Ioway river, on the Mississippi, runs back two or three miles to
the bluffs, follows the bluffs, crossing Bad axe river, to the mouth of Black
river, and from Black river to half a day's march below the Falls of the
It is agreed between the
Chippewas and Winnebagoes, so far as they are mutually interested therein,
that the southern boundary line of the Chippewa country shall commence on the
Chippewa river aforesaid, half a day's march below the falls on that river,
and run thence to the source of Clear Water river, a branch of the Chippewa;
thence south to Black river; thence to a point where the woods project into
the meadows, and thence to the Plover Portage of the Ouisconsin.
It is agreed between the
Winnebagoes and the Sioux, Sacs and Foxes, Chippewas and Ottawas, Chippewas
and Potawatomies of the Illinois, that the Winnebago country shall be bounded
as follows: south easterly by Rock River, from its source near the Winnebago
lake, to the Winnebago village, about forty miles above its mouth; westerly by
the east line of the tract, lying upon the Mississippi, herein secured to the
Ottawa, Chippewa and Potawatomie Indians, of the Illinois; and also by the
high bluff, described in the Sioux boundary, and running north to Black river:
from this point the Winnebagoes claim up Black river, to a point due west from
the source of the left fork of the Ouisconsin; thence to the source of the
said fork, and down the same to the Ouisconsin; thence down the Ouisconsin to
the portage, and across the portage to Fox river; thence down Fox river to the
Winnebago lake, and to the grand Kan Kanlin, including in their claim the
whole of Winnebago lake; but, for the causes stated in the next article, this
line from Black river must for the present be left indeterminate.
The representatives of the Menominies not being sufficiently
acquainted with their proper boundaries, to settle the same definitively, and
some uncertainty existing in consequence of the cession made by that tribe
upon Fox River and Green Bay, to the New York Indians, it is agreed between
the said Menominie tribe, and the Sioux, Chippewas, Winnebagoes, Ottawa,
Chippewa and Potawatomie Indians of the Illinois, that the claim of the
Menominies to any portion of the land within the boundaries allotted to either
of the said tribes, shall not be barred by any stipulation herein; but the
same shall remain as valid as if this treaty had not been concluded. It is,
however, understood that the general claim of the Menominies is bounded on the
north by the Chippewa country, on the east by Green Bay and lake Michigan
extending as far south as Millawaukee river, and on the West they claim to
The country secured to the Ottawa, Chippewa, and
Potawatomie tribes of the Illinois, is bounded as follows: Beginning at the
village, on Rock river, forty miles from its mouth and running thence down
the Rock river to a line which runs from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi, and
with that line to the Mississippi, opposite to Rock Island; thence up that
river to the United States reservation, at the mouth of the Ouisconsin; thence
with the south and east lines of the said reservation to the Ouisconsin;
thence, southerly, passing the heads of the small streams emptying into the
Mississippi, to the Rock river at the Winnebago village. The Illinois Indians
have also a just claim to a portion of the country bounded south by the Indian
boundary line aforesaid, running from the southern extreme of lake Michigan,
east by lake Michigan, north by the Menominie country, and north-west by Rock
river. This claim is recognized in the treaty concluded with the said Illinois
tribes at St. Louis, August 24, 1816, but as the Millewakee and Manetoowalk
bands are not represented at this Council, it cannot be now definitively
All the tribes aforesaid acknowledge the general
controlling power of the United States, and disclaim all dependence upon, and
connection with, any other power. And the United States agree to, and
recognize, the preceding boundaries, subject to the limitations and
restrictions before provided. It being, however, well understood that the
reservations at Fever River, at the Ouisconsin, and St. Peters, and the
ancient settlements at Prairie des Chiens and Green Bay, and the land property
thereto belonging, and the reservations made upon the Mississippi, for the use
of the half breeds, in the treaty concluded with the Sacs and Foxes, August
24, 1824, are not claimed by either of the said tribes.
The United States agree, whenever the President may think it necessary and
proper, to convene such of the tribes, either separately or together, as are
interested in the lines left unsettled herein, and to recommend to them an
amicable and final adjustment of their respective claims, so that the work,
now happily begun, may be consummated. It is agreed, however, that a Council shall be held with the Yancton band of the Sioux,
during the year 1826, to explain to them the stipulations of this treaty, and
to procure their assent thereto, should they be disposed to give it, and also
with the Ottoes, to settle and adjust their title to any of the country
claimed by the Sacs, Foxes, and Ioways.
The Chippewa tribe being dispersed over a great
extent of country, and the Chiefs of that tribe having requested, that such
portion of them as may be thought proper, by the Government of the United
States, may be assembled in 1826, upon some part of Lake Superior, that the
objects and advantages of this treaty may be fully explained to them, so that
the stipulations thereof may be observed by the warriors. The Commissioners of
the United States assent thereto, and it is therefore agreed that a council
shall accordingly be held for these purposes.
It is understood by all the tribes, parties hereto, that no tribe shall hunt within the acknowledged limits of any
other without their assent, but it being the sole object of this arrangement
to perpetuate a peace among them, and amicable relations being now restored,
the Chiefs of
all the tribes have expressed a determination, cheerfully to allow a
reciprocal right of hunting on the lands of one another, permission being
first asked and obtained, as before provided for.
Should any causes of difficulty hereafter unhappily
arise between any of the tribes, parties hereunto, it is agreed that the other
tribes shall interpose their good offices to remove such difficulties; and
also that the government of the United States may take such measures as they
may deem proper, to effect the same object.
This treaty shall be obligatory on the tribes, parties
hereto, from and after the date hereof, and on the United States, from and
after its ratification by the government thereof.
Done, and signed, and
sealed, at Prairie des Chiens, in the territory of Michigan, this nineteenth
day of August, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-five, and of the
independence of the United States the fiftieth.
William Clark, [L. S.]
Lewis Cass, [L.
Wa-ba-sha, x or the leaf, [L.
Pe-tet-te x Corbeau, little crow, [L. S.]
The Little x of the
Wappitong tribe, [L. S.]
Tartunka-nasiah x Sussitong, [L. S.]
Eyes, x Sossitong, [L. S.]
Two faces x do [L. S.]
French Crow x
Wappacoota, [L. S.]
Kee-jee x do [L. S.]
Tar-se-ga x do [L.
Wa-ma-de-tun-ka x black dog, [L. S.]
Wan-na-ta x Yancton, or he that
charges on his enemies, [L. S.]
Red Wing x [L. S.]
Ko-ko-ma-ko x [L.
Sha-co-pe x the Sixth, [L. S.]
Pe-ni-si-on x [L. S.]
Wabasha's band, [L. S.]
Wa-ka-u-hee, x Sioux band, rising thunder, [L.
The Little Crow, x Sussetong, [L. S.]
Me-da-we-con-tong, or eagle head, [L. S.]
Ta-ke-wa-pa x Wappitong, or
medicine blanket, [L. S.]
Tench-ze-part, x his bow, [L.
Masc-pu-lo-chas-tosh, x the white man, [L. S.]
the buffaloman, [L. S.]
Wa-sa-o-ta x Sussetong, or a great of hail, [L.
Oeyah-ko-ca, x the crackling tract, [L. S.]
Mak-to-wah-ke-ark, x the
bear, [L. S.]
Les quatres jambes, x
Carimine, x the turtle that walks, [L. S.]
De-ca-ri, x [L.
Wan-ca-ha-ga, x or snake's skin, [L. S.]
Sa-sa-ma-ni, x [L.
Wa-non-che-qua, x the merchant, [L. S.]
Chon-que-pa, x or dog's
head, [L. S.]
Cha-rat-chon, x the smoker, [L. S.]
Ca-ri-ca-si-ca, x he
that kills the crow, [L. S.]
Watch-kat-o-que, x the grand canoe, [L.
Ho-wa-mick-a, x the little elk, [L.
Ma-can-me-ta, x medicine bear,
Chau-wee-nou-mi-tai, x medicine south wind, [L. S.]
x [L. S.]
Ma-wesh-a, x the little wolf, [L. S.]
A-ya-pas-mis-ai, x the
thunder that turns, [L. S.]
Cha-ne-pau, x the riband, [L.
La-me-quon, x the spoon, [L. S.]
En-im-e-tas, x the barking wolf,
Pape-at, x the one just arrived, [L. S.]
O-que-men-ce, x the
little chief, [L. S.]
W'Ossin, 1st chief of the Chippewa nation, Saulte St. Marie, [L.
Gitspee x Jiauba, 2d chief, [L. S.]
Gitspee x Waskee, or le boeuf of
la pointe lake Superior, [L. S.]
Nain-a-boozhu, x of la pointe lake
Superior, [L. S.]
Monga, x Zid or loon's foot of Fond du Lac, [L.
Weescoup, x or sucre of Fond du Lac, [L. S.]
Mush-Koas, x or the elk
of Fond du Lac, [L. S.]
Nau-bun x Aqeezhik, of Fond du Lac, [L.
Kau-ta-waubeta, x or broken tooth of Sandy lake, [L.
Pugisaingegen, x or broken arm of Sandy lake, [L.
Kwee-weezaishish, x or gross guelle of Sandy lake, [L.
Ba-ba-see-kundade, x or curling hair of Sandy lake, [L.
Paashineep, x or man shooting at the mark of Sandy lake, [L.
Pu-ga-a-gik, x the little beef, Leech lake, [L. S.]
or buffalo, St. Croix band, [L. S.]
Nau-din, x or the wind, St. Croix band,
Nau-quan-a-bee, x of Mille lac, [L. S.]
Tu-kau-bis-hoo, x or crouching lynx of Lac Courte Oreille,
The Red Devil, x of Lac Courte Oreille, [L. S.]
The Track, x of
Lac Courte Oreille, [L. S.]
Ne-bo-na-bee, x the mermaid Lac Courte Oreille,
Pi-a-gick, x the single man St. Croix, [L. S.]
or the hole in the day, Sandy lake, [L. S.]
Moose-o-mon-e, x plenty of elk,
St. Croix band, [L. S.]
Nees-o-pe-na, x or two birds of Upper Red Cedar
lake, [L. S.]
Shaata, x the pelican of Leech lake, [L.
Che-on-o-quet, x the great cloud of Leech lake, [L.
I-au-ben-see, x the little buck of Red lake, [L. S.]
the tarrier of Leech lake, [L. S.]
Mau-ge-ga-bo, x the leader of Leech
lake, [L. S.]
Nan-go-tuck, x the flame of Leech lake, [L.
Nee-si-day-sish, x the sky of Red lake, [L. S.]
striped feather of Sandy lake, [L. S.]
White Devil, x of Leech lake, [L.
Ka-ha-ka, x the sparrow, Lac
Courte Oreille, [L.
I-au-be-ence, x little buck of Rice lake, Ca-ba-ma-bee, x the assembly
of St. Croix, [L. S.]
Nau-gau-nosh, x the forward man lake Flambeau, [L.
Caw-win-dow, x he that gathers berries of Sandy Lake, [L.
On-que-ess, the mink, lake Superior, [L. S.]
Ke-we-ta-ke-pe, x all
round the sky, [L. S.]
The-sees, x [L.
Chaboner, x or Chambly, [L.
Shaw-fau-wick, x the mink, [L.
Ignace, x [L. S.]
x [L. S.]
Che-chan-quose, x the little crane, [L. S.]
the trader, [L. S.]
Na-o-tuk, x the
stabbing chief, [L. S.]
Pish-ken-au-nee, x all fish, [L.
Po-ko-nau-qua, x or broken arm, [L. S.]
Wau-kau-che, x eagle nose,
Quash-kaume, x jumping fish, [L. S.]
Ochaach, x the fisher, [L.
Ke-o-kuck, x the watchful fox, [L. S.]
Skin-gwin-ee-see, the x
ratler, [L. S.]
Was-ar-wis-ke-no, x the yellow bird, [L. S.]
x the open sky, [L. S.]
Au-kaak-wan-e-suk, x he that vaults on the earth,
Mu-ku-taak-wan-wet, x [L. S.]
Mis-ke-bee, x the standing hair,
Wan-ba-law, x the playing fox,
Ti-a-mah, x the bear that makes the rocks shake, [L.
Pee-ar-maski, x the jumping sturgeon, [L. S.]
the thunder that is heard all over the world, [L. S.]
Mis-o-win, x moose
deer horn, [L. S.]
No-ko-wot, x the down of the fur, [L.
Nau-sa-wa-quot, x the bear that
sleeps on the forks, [L.
Shin-quin-is, x the ratler, [L. S.]
O-lo-pee-aau, x or
Mache-paho-ta, the bear, [L. S.]
Keesis, x the sun, [L. S.]
he that gives too little, [L. S.]
Kan-ka-mote, x [L. S.]
Neek-waa, x [L.
Ka-tuck-e-kan-ka, x the fox with a spotted breast, [L.
Mock-to-back-sa-gum, x black tobacco, [L. S.]
Wes-kesa, x the bear
family, [L. S.]
Ma-hos-ka, x the
white cloud, [L. S.]
Pumpkin, x [L. S.]
Wa-ca-nee, x the painted
medicine, [L. S.]
Tar-no-mun, x a great many deer, [L. S.]
the owl, [L. S.]
Ta-ca-mo-nee, x the lightning, [L. S.]
Wa-push-a, x the
man killer, [L. S.]
To-nup-he-non-e, x the flea, [L. S.]
Cho-wa-row-a, x [L. S.]
Thomas Biddle, secretary,
R. A. McCabe, Captain Fifth Infantry,
N. Boilvin, United States Indian agent,
C. C. Trowbridge, sub
Henry R. Schoolcraft, United States Indian
Harney, Surgeon U. S. Army,
W. B. Alexander, sub Indian agent,
Forsyth, agent Indian affairs,
McIlvaine, lieutenant U. S. Army,
Law, Taliaferro, Indian agent for
United States interpreter,
J. A. Lewis,
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